Affect, Motivation, and Action lab


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* = authors contributed equally.

in progress

Topel, S., Ma, I., van Steenbergen, H., van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K., & de Bruijn, E.R.A. (submitted). Adapting to uncertainty: The role of anxiety and fear of negative evaluation in learning in social and non-social contexts Preprint:

van Steenbergen, H., Wilderjans, T. F., Band, G. P. H., & Nieuwenhuis, S. T. (submitted). Boosting arousal and cognitive performance through alternating posture: Insights from a multi-method laboratory study.

Bognar, M., Gyurkovics, M., Aczel, B.*, & van Steenbergen, H.* (submitted) The curve of control: Non-monotonic effects of task difficulty on cognitive control. Preprint:

in press

Murphy, S.L., van Meer, F., van Dillen, L.F., van Steenbergen, H., & Hofmann, W. (in press). Underwhelming pleasures: Toward a self-regulatory account of hedonic compensation and overconsumption. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Preprint:

Calcott, R.D.*, Kolnes, M.*, van Steenbergen, H., & Dreisbach, G. (in press). The differential effects of reward prospect and reward reception: Dynamic performance adjustment versus stable performance. Motivation Science.


Topel, S., Ma, I., Sleutels, J., van Steenbergen, H., de Bruijn, E.R.A., & van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K. (2023). Expecting the unexpected: A review of learning under uncertainty across development. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 23, 718-738.

Bognar, M., Gyurkovics, M., van Steenbergen, H.*, & Aczel, B.* (2023). Phasic affective signals by themselves do not regulate cognitive control. Cognition and Emotion, 37, 650-665.

van Meer, F.*, van Steenbergen, H.*, & van Dillen, L.F. (2023). The effect of cognitive load on preference and intensity processing of sweet taste in the brain. Appetite, 188, 106630. Preprint:

Folz, J., Akdağ, R., Nikolić, M., van Steenbergen, H., & Kret, M.E. (2023). Facial mimicry and metacognitive judgments in emotion recognition are distinctly modulated by social anxiety and autistic traits. Scientific Reports, 13, 9730. Preprint:

van Meer, F., Murphy, S., Hofmann, W., van Steenbergen, H., & van Dillen, L.F. (2023). Driven to snack: simulated driving increases subsequent consumption. Journal of Trial and Error. Preprint:


Hoekzema, E., van Steenbergen, H., Straathof, M., Beekmans, A., Freund, I.M., Pouwels, P.J.W., & Crone, E.A. (2022). Mapping the effects of pregnancy on resting state brain activity, white matter microstructure, neural metabolite concentrations and grey matter architectureNature Communications, 13, 6931.

Kolnes, M., Gentsch, K., van Steenbergen, H.*, & Uusberg, A.* (2022). The mystery remains: Breadth of attention in flanker and Navon tasks unaffected by affective states induced by an appraisal manipulation. Cognition and Emotion, 36, 836-854.

Folz, J., Fiacchino, D, Nikolic, .M., van Steenbergen, H., & Kret, M.E. (2022). Reading your emotions in my physiology? Reliable emotion interpretations in absence of a robust physiological resonance. Affective Science, 3, 480-497.


van Steenbergen, H.,  Sauter, D.,  Saunders, B., & Pourtois, G. (2021). Editorial overview: Positive affect: Taxonomies, mechanisms and applicationsCurrent Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 39, iii–viii.  Preprint:

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H.,  Kadosh, K.C., Westenberg, P.M. , & van der Wee, N.J.A. (2021). Intrinsic functional connectivity in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder – an endophenotype studyEBioMedicine, 69, 103445.

van Steenbergen, H., de Bruijn, E.R.A., van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K., & van Harmelen, A.-L. (2021). How positive affect buffers stress responsesCurrent Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 39, 153-160.

Paul, K., Pourtois, G., van Steenbergen, H., Gable, P., & Dreisbach, G. (2021). Finding a balance: Modulatory effects of positive affect on attentional and cognitive control. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 39, 136-141.


Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Tissier, R.L.M., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2020). Altered neurobiological processing of unintentional social norm violations: a multiplex, multigenerational fMRI study on social anxiety endophenotypesBiological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 5, 981–990.

Landman, L.L. & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). Emotion and conflict adaptation: The role of phasic arousal and self-relevanceCognition and Emotion, 34, 1083-1096.

Zekveld, A.A., van Scheepen, J.A.M., Versfeld, N.E., Kramer, S.E., & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). The influence of hearing loss on cognitive control in an auditory conflict task: Behavioral and pupillometry findings.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 63, 2483-2492.

Pourtois, G., Braem, S., Notebaert, W., & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). What is cognitive control without affect? [Editorial]. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 153, 91-94.

Langeslag, S.J.E.* & van Steenbergen, H.* (2020). Cognitive control in romantic love: The roles of infatuation and attachment in interference and adaptive cognitive control. Cognition and Emotion, 34, 596-603.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2020). Amygdala hyperreactivity to faces conditioned with a social-evaluative meaning: A multiplex, multigenerational fMRI study on social anxiety endophenotypesNeuroImage: Clinical, 26, 102247.

Berger, A., Mitschke, V., Dignath, D., Eder, A., & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). The face of control: Corrugator supercilii tracks aversive conflict signals in the service of adaptive cognitive control. Psychophysiology, 57, e13524. Preprint:


Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Blackford, J.U., Tissier, R.L.M., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2019). Impaired neural habituation to neutral faces in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 36, 1143-1153.

Dignath, D., Berger, A., Spruit, I.M., & van Steenbergen, H. (2019). Temporal dynamics of error-related corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major activity: Evidence for implicit emotion regulation following errorsInternational Journal of Psychophysiology, 146, 208-216.

van Steenbergen, H.*, Eikemo, M.*, & Leknes, S. (2019). The role of the opioid system in decision making and cognitive control: A review. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 19, 435-458. Preprint:

Spapé M.M.*, Verdonschot, R.G., & van Steenbergen, H.* (2019) The E-Primer: An introduction to creating psychological experiments in E-Prime. Second edition updated for E-Prime 3. Leiden: Leiden University Press.

Warren, C.M., Tona, K.D., Ouwerkerk, L., van Paridon, J., Poletiek, F., van Steenbergen, H., Bosch, J.A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2019). The neuromodulatory and hormonal effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation as evidenced by salivary alpha amylase, salivary cortisol, pupil diameter, and the P3 event-related potential. Brain Stimulation, 12, 635-642.


van der Wel, P. & van Steenbergen, H. (2018). Pupil dilation as an index of effort in cognitive control tasks: A reviewPsychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 2005-2015.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Tissier, R.L.M., Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J., Westenberg, P.M., & van der Wee, N.J.A. (2018). Subcortical brain volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder – a multiplex multigenerational neuroimaging studyEBioMedicine, 36, 410-428.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., Harrewijn, A., Tissier, R.L.M., van der Molen, M., van Steenbergen, H., van Vliet, I., Reichart, C., Houwing-Duistermaat, J., Slagboom, P.E., van der Wee, N., & Westenberg, P.M. (2018). The Leiden Family Lab study on Social Anxiety Disorder: a multiplex, multigenerational family study on neurocognitive endophenotypesInternational Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 27, e1616.

van Dillen, L.F.* & van Steenbergen, H.* (2018) Tuning down the hedonic brain: Working memory load reduces neural responses to high-calorie food images in the nucleus accumbensCognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18, 447-459.

Spruit, I.M., Wilderjans, T.M., & van Steenbergen, H. (2018). Heart work after errors: Behavioral adjustment following error commission involves cardiac effort. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18, 375-388.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Kreuk, T., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2018). Not intended, still embarrassed: social anxiety modulates the experience of unintentional social norm violations. European Psychiatry, 52, 15-21.


Bas-Hoogendam, J.M.*, van Steenbergen, H.* , Pannekoek, J.N., Fouche, J.-P., Lochner, C., Hattingh, C.J., Roelofs, K., Furmark, T., Månsson, K.N.T., Frick, A., Engman, J., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Carlbring, P., Andersson, G., Fredrikson, M., Straube, T., Peterburs, J., Klumpp, H., Phan, K.L., Cremers, H.R., Stein, D.J., & van der Wee, N.J.A. (2017). Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical, 16, 678-688.

van Peer, J.M.*, Enter, D.*, van Steenbergen, H., Spinhoven, P., & Roelofs, K. (2017). Exogenous testosterone affects early threat processing in socially anxious and healthy womenBiological Psychology129, 82-89.

Kuipers, M., Richter, M., Scheepers, D., Immink, M., Sjak-Shie, E., & van Steenbergen, H. (2017). How effortful is cognitive control? Insights from a novel method measuring single-trial evoked beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivityInternational Journal of Psychophysiology119, 87-92.

van Steenbergen, H., Watson, P., Wiers, R.W., Hommel, B., & de Wit, S. (2017). Dissociable corticostriatal circuits underlie goal-directed versus cue-elicited habitual food seeking after satiation: Evidence from a multimodal MRI studyEuropean Journal of Neuroscience, 46, 1815–1827.

van Steenbergen, H., Warren, C.M., Kühn, S., de Wit, S., Wiers, R.W., & Hommel, B. (2017). Representational precision in visual cortex reveals outcome encoding and reward modulation during action preparation. NeuroImage157, 415-428.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Kreuk, T., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2017). How embarrassing! The behavioral and neural correlates of processing social norm violations. PLoS ONE12, e0176326.

van Steenbergen, H., Weissman, D., Stein, D.J., Malcolm-Smith, S., & van Honk, J. (2017). More pain, more gain: Blocking the opioid system boosts adaptive cognitive controlPsychoneuroendocrinology, 80, 99-103.


van Steenbergen, H.* & Bocanegra, B.R.* (2016). Promises and pitfalls of web-based experimentation in the advance of replicable psychological science. A reply to PlantBehavior Research Methods, 48, 1713–1717. 


Kowal, M.A., van Steenbergen, H., Colzato, L.C., Hazekamp, A., van der Wee, N., Manai, M., Durieux, J., & Hommel, B. (2015). Dose-dependent effects of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring in regular cannabis users. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25, 1943-1953.

Watson, P., van Steenbergen, H., de Wit, S., Wiers, R.W., & Hommel, B. (2015). Limits of action-outcome acquisition. Brain Research, 1626, 45-53.

Barnhoorn, J., Haasnoot, E., Bocanegra, B.R., & van Steenbergen, H. (2015). QRTEngine: An easy solution for running online reaction time experiments using Qualtrics. Behavior Research Methods, 47, 918-929.

Rondeel, E.W.M., van Steenbergen, H., Holland, R.W., & van Knippenberg, A. (2015). A closer look at cognitive control: Differences in resource allocation during updating, inhibition and switching as revealed by pupillometry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9:494.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2015). Does conflict help or hurt cognitive control? Initial evidence for an inverted U-shape relationship between perceived task difficulty and conflict adaptation. Frontiers in Psychology6:974.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M.*, Andela, C.D.*, van der Werff, S.J.A., Pannekoek, N., van Steenbergen, H., Meijer, O.C., van Buchem, M.A., Rombouts, S.A.R.B., van der Mast, R.C., Biermasz, N.R., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Pereira, A.M. (2015). Altered neural processing of emotional faces in remitted Cushing’s disease. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 59, 134-146.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., Hommel, B., Rombouts, S.A.R.B., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2015). Hedonic hotspots regulate cingulate-driven adaptation to cognitive demands. Cerebral Cortex, 25, 1746-1756.

van Steenbergen, H., Haasnoot, E, Bocanegra, B.R., Berretty, E.W., & Hommel, B. (2015). Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions. Scientific Reports, 5:9721.

Kowal, M.A., Hazekamp, A., Colzato, L.C., van Steenbergen, H., van der Wee, N., Durieux, J., Manai, M., & Hommel, B. (2015). Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users. Psychopharmacology, 232, 1123-1134.

van Steenbergen, H. (2015). Affective modulation of cognitive control: A biobehavioral perspective. In G. Gendolla, M. Tops, S. Koole (Eds.) Handbook of Biobehavioral Approaches to Self-Regulation (pp. 89-107). Springer.


Spapé M.M.*, Verdonschot, R.G., Van Dantzig, S., & van Steenbergen, H.* (2014) The E-Primer: An introduction to creating psychological experiments in E-Prime. Leiden: Leiden University Press.

Hengstler, M., Holland, R.W., van Steenbergen, H., van Knippenberg, A. (2014). The influence of approach-avoidance motivational orientation on conflict adaptation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 548-560

van Steenbergen, H., Langeslag, S.J.E., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2014). Reduced cognitive control in passionate lovers. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 444-450.

Brown, S.B.R.E, van Steenbergen, H., Kedar, T., Nieuwenhuis, S. (2014). Effects of arousal on cognitive control: Empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:23.


van Steenbergen, H. & Band, G.P.H. (2013). Pupil dilation in the Simon task as a marker of conflict processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7:215.

Bruyneel, L., van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., Hommel, B., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E.H.W. (2013). Happy but still focused: Failures to find evidence for a mood-induced widening of visual attention. Psychological Research, 77, 320-332.

Kowal, M.A., Hazekamp, A., Colzato, L.C., van Steenbergen, H., & Hommel, B. (2013). Modulation of cognitive and emotional processing by cannabidiol: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience7:147.

de Laat, S., Hengstler, M., Holland. R.W., van Steenbergen, H., & van Knippenberg, A. (2013). Dat kan niet goet zijn: Domein-generiek conflict verhoogt cognitieve controle. In R. Dotsch, E.K. Papies, T.M. Pronk, B.T. Rutjens, J. van der Toorn, & E.G. Ufkes (Eds.), Jaarboek sociale psychologie 2013 (pp. 121-124). Groningen: Aspo Pers.


van Steenbergen, H. (2012) The Drive to Control: How Affect and Motivation Regulate Cognitive Control [Dissertation]. Enschede: Ipskamp Drukkers B.V.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2012). Reward valence modulates conflict-driven attentional adaptation: Electrophysiological evidence. Biological Psychology, 90, 234-241

van Steenbergen, H., Booij, L., Band, G.P.H., Hommel, B., & van der Does, A.J.W. (2012). Affective regulation of cognitive-control adjustments in remitted depressive patients after acute tryptophan depletion. Cognitive, Affective, &Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 280-286

Brown, S.B.R.E., van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H, de Rover, M., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2012). Functional significance of the emotion-related late positive potential, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:33.

Jepma, M., Verdonschot, R.G., van Steenbergen, H., Rombouts, S.A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2012). Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 6:5.

Hengstler, M., Holland, R.W., van Steenbergen, H., & van Knippenberg, A. (2012). Conflict Adaptatie Gereguleerd: De Invloed van Lichaamsfeedback op Conflict Adaptatie. In N. van de Ven, M. Baas, L. van Dillen, D. Lakens, A.M. Lokhorst, & M. Strick (Eds.) Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2011, 75-86. Groningen: ASPO Pers.


van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2011). Threat but not arousal narrows attention: evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control. Frontiers in Psychology, 2: 281.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2010). In the mood for adaptation: How affect regulates conflict-driven control. Psychological Science, 21, 1629-1634.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2009). Reward counteracts conflict adaptation: Evidence for a role of affect in executive control. Psychological Science, 20, 1473-1477.

Band, G.P.H., van Steenbergen, H., Ridderinkhof, K.R., Falkenstein, M., & Hommel, B. (2009). Action-effect negativity: Irrelevant action effects are monitored like relevant feedbackBiological Psychology, 82, 211-218.