Affect, Motivation, and Action lab


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* = authors contributed equally.

in progress

Topel, S., Ma, I., Sleutels, J., van Steenbergen, H., de Bruijn, E.R.A., & van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K. (submitted). Expecting the unexpected: A review of learning under uncertainty across development.

van Meer, F.*, van Steenbergen, H.*, & van Dillen, L.F. (submitted). The effect of cognitive load on hedonic and intensity processing of sweet taste in the brain.

Murphy, S.L., van Dillen, L.F., van Meer, F., van Steenbergen, H., & Hofmann, W. (submitted). Hedonic compensation and overconsumption: An experience sampling investigation.

Bognar, M., Gyurkovics, M., van Steenbergen*, & Aczel, B.* (submitted). Phasic affective signals by themselves do not regulate cognitive control.

Folz, J., Akdağ, R., Nikolić, M., van Steenbergen, H., & Kret, M.E. (submitted). Facial mimicry and metacognitive judgments in emotion recognition – modulated by social anxiety and autistic traits?

van Meer, F., Murphy, S., Hofmann, W., van Steenbergen, H., & van Dillen, L.F. (submitted). Driven to snack: Simulated driving reduces taste perception and increases subsequent consumption of salty potato chips.

Calcott, R.D., van Steenbergen, H., & Dreisbach, G. (submitted). The prospect of performance-contingent reward, not its reception, elicits selective effort but also post-reward slowing: A behavioral and pupillometry study.


Hoekzema, E., van Steenbergen, H., Straathof, M., Beekmans, A., Freund, I.M., Pouwels, P.J.W., & Crone, E.A. (2022). Mapping the effects of pregnancy on resting state brain activity, white matter microstructure, neural metabolite concentrations and grey matter architectureNature Communications, 13, 6931.

Kolnes, M., Gentsch, K., van Steenbergen, H.*, & Uusberg, A.* (2022). The mystery remains: Breadth of attention in flanker and Navon tasks unaffected by affective states induced by an appraisal manipulation. Cognition and Emotion, 36, 836-854.

Folz, J., Fiacchino, D, Nikolic, .M., van Steenbergen, H., & Kret, M.E. (2022). Reading your emotions in my physiology? Reliable emotion interpretations in absence of a robust physiological resonance. Affective Science, 3, 480-497.


van Steenbergen, H.,  Sauter, D.,  Saunders, B., & Pourtois, G. (2021). Editorial overview: Positive affect: Taxonomies, mechanisms and applicationsCurrent Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 39, iii–viii.  Preprint:

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H.,  Kadosh, K.C., Westenberg, P.M. , & van der Wee, N.J.A. (2021). Intrinsic functional connectivity in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder – an endophenotype studyEBioMedicine, 69, 103445.

van Steenbergen, H., de Bruijn, E.R.A., van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K., & van Harmelen, A.-L. (2021). How positive affect buffers stress responsesCurrent Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 39, 153-160.

Paul, K., Pourtois, G., van Steenbergen, H., Gable, P., & Dreisbach, G. (2021). Finding a balance: Modulatory effects of positive affect on attentional and cognitive control. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 39, 136-141.


Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Tissier, R.L.M., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2020). Altered neurobiological processing of unintentional social norm violations: a multiplex, multigenerational fMRI study on social anxiety endophenotypesBiological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 5, 981–990.

Landman, L.L. & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). Emotion and conflict adaptation: The role of phasic arousal and self-relevanceCognition and Emotion, 34, 1083-1096.

Zekveld, A.A., van Scheepen, J.A.M., Versfeld, N.E., Kramer, S.E., & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). The influence of hearing loss on cognitive control in an auditory conflict task: Behavioral and pupillometry findings.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 63, 2483-2492.

Pourtois, G., Braem, S., Notebaert, W., & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). What is cognitive control without affect? [Editorial]. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 153, 91-94.

Langeslag, S.J.E.* & van Steenbergen, H.* (2020). Cognitive control in romantic love: The roles of infatuation and attachment in interference and adaptive cognitive control. Cognition and Emotion, 34, 596-603.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2020). Amygdala hyperreactivity to faces conditioned with a social-evaluative meaning: A multiplex, multigenerational fMRI study on social anxiety endophenotypesNeuroImage: Clinical, 26, 102247.

Berger, A., Mitschke, V., Dignath, D., Eder, A., & van Steenbergen, H. (2020). The face of control: Corrugator supercilii tracks aversive conflict signals in the service of adaptive cognitive control. Psychophysiology, 57, e13524. Preprint:


Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Blackford, J.U., Tissier, R.L.M., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2019). Impaired neural habituation to neutral faces in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 36, 1143-1153.

Dignath, D., Berger, A., Spruit, I.M., & van Steenbergen, H. (2019). Temporal dynamics of error-related corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major activity: Evidence for implicit emotion regulation following errorsInternational Journal of Psychophysiology, 146, 208-216.

van Steenbergen, H.*, Eikemo, M.*, & Leknes, S. (2019). The role of the opioid system in decision making and cognitive control: A review. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 19, 435-458. Preprint:

Spapé M.M.*, Verdonschot, R.G., & van Steenbergen, H.* (2019) The E-Primer: An introduction to creating psychological experiments in E-Prime. Second edition updated for E-Prime 3. Leiden: Leiden University Press.

Warren, C.M., Tona, K.D., Ouwerkerk, L., van Paridon, J., Poletiek, F., van Steenbergen, H., Bosch, J.A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2019). The neuromodulatory and hormonal effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation as evidenced by salivary alpha amylase, salivary cortisol, pupil diameter, and the P3 event-related potential. Brain Stimulation, 12, 635-642.


van der Wel, P. & van Steenbergen, H. (2018). Pupil dilation as an index of effort in cognitive control tasks: A reviewPsychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 2005-2015.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Tissier, R.L.M., Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J., Westenberg, P.M., & van der Wee, N.J.A. (2018). Subcortical brain volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder – a multiplex multigenerational neuroimaging studyEBioMedicine, 36, 410-428.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., Harrewijn, A., Tissier, R.L.M., van der Molen, M., van Steenbergen, H., van Vliet, I., Reichart, C., Houwing-Duistermaat, J., Slagboom, P.E., van der Wee, N., & Westenberg, P.M. (2018). The Leiden Family Lab study on Social Anxiety Disorder: a multiplex, multigenerational family study on neurocognitive endophenotypesInternational Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 27, e1616.

van Dillen, L.F.* & van Steenbergen, H.* (2018) Tuning down the hedonic brain: Working memory load reduces neural responses to high-calorie food images in the nucleus accumbensCognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18, 447-459.

Spruit, I.M., Wilderjans, T.M., & van Steenbergen, H. (2018). Heart work after errors: Behavioral adjustment following error commission involves cardiac effort. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 18, 375-388.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Kreuk, T., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2018). Not intended, still embarrassed: social anxiety modulates the experience of unintentional social norm violations. European Psychiatry, 52, 15-21.


Bas-Hoogendam, J.M.*, van Steenbergen, H.* , Pannekoek, J.N., Fouche, J.-P., Lochner, C., Hattingh, C.J., Roelofs, K., Furmark, T., Månsson, K.N.T., Frick, A., Engman, J., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Carlbring, P., Andersson, G., Fredrikson, M., Straube, T., Peterburs, J., Klumpp, H., Phan, K.L., Cremers, H.R., Stein, D.J., & van der Wee, N.J.A. (2017). Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical, 16, 678-688.

van Peer, J.M.*, Enter, D.*, van Steenbergen, H., Spinhoven, P., & Roelofs, K. (2017). Exogenous testosterone affects early threat processing in socially anxious and healthy womenBiological Psychology129, 82-89.

Kuipers, M., Richter, M., Scheepers, D., Immink, M., Sjak-Shie, E., & van Steenbergen, H. (2017). How effortful is cognitive control? Insights from a novel method measuring single-trial evoked beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivityInternational Journal of Psychophysiology119, 87-92.

van Steenbergen, H., Watson, P., Wiers, R.W., Hommel, B., & de Wit, S. (2017). Dissociable corticostriatal circuits underlie goal-directed versus cue-elicited habitual food seeking after satiation: Evidence from a multimodal MRI studyEuropean Journal of Neuroscience, 46, 1815–1827.

van Steenbergen, H., Warren, C.M., Kühn, S., de Wit, S., Wiers, R.W., & Hommel, B. (2017). Representational precision in visual cortex reveals outcome encoding and reward modulation during action preparation. NeuroImage157, 415-428.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M., van Steenbergen, H., Kreuk, T., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Westenberg, P.M. (2017). How embarrassing! The behavioral and neural correlates of processing social norm violations. PLoS ONE12, e0176326.

van Steenbergen, H., Weissman, D., Stein, D.J., Malcolm-Smith, S., & van Honk, J. (2017). More pain, more gain: Blocking the opioid system boosts adaptive cognitive controlPsychoneuroendocrinology, 80, 99-103.


van Steenbergen, H.* & Bocanegra, B.R.* (2016). Promises and pitfalls of web-based experimentation in the advance of replicable psychological science. A reply to PlantBehavior Research Methods, 48, 1713–1717. 


Kowal, M.A., van Steenbergen, H., Colzato, L.C., Hazekamp, A., van der Wee, N., Manai, M., Durieux, J., & Hommel, B. (2015). Dose-dependent effects of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring in regular cannabis users. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25, 1943-1953.

Watson, P., van Steenbergen, H., de Wit, S., Wiers, R.W., & Hommel, B. (2015). Limits of action-outcome acquisition. Brain Research, 1626, 45-53.

Barnhoorn, J., Haasnoot, E., Bocanegra, B.R., & van Steenbergen, H. (2015). QRTEngine: An easy solution for running online reaction time experiments using Qualtrics. Behavior Research Methods, 47, 918-929.

Rondeel, E.W.M., van Steenbergen, H., Holland, R.W., & van Knippenberg, A. (2015). A closer look at cognitive control: Differences in resource allocation during updating, inhibition and switching as revealed by pupillometry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9:494.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2015). Does conflict help or hurt cognitive control? Initial evidence for an inverted U-shape relationship between perceived task difficulty and conflict adaptation. Frontiers in Psychology6:974.

Bas-Hoogendam, J.M.*, Andela, C.D.*, van der Werff, S.J.A., Pannekoek, N., van Steenbergen, H., Meijer, O.C., van Buchem, M.A., Rombouts, S.A.R.B., van der Mast, R.C., Biermasz, N.R., van der Wee, N.J.A., & Pereira, A.M. (2015). Altered neural processing of emotional faces in remitted Cushing’s disease. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 59, 134-146.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., Hommel, B., Rombouts, S.A.R.B., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2015). Hedonic hotspots regulate cingulate-driven adaptation to cognitive demands. Cerebral Cortex, 25, 1746-1756.

van Steenbergen, H., Haasnoot, E, Bocanegra, B.R., Berretty, E.W., & Hommel, B. (2015). Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions. Scientific Reports, 5:9721.

Kowal, M.A., Hazekamp, A., Colzato, L.C., van Steenbergen, H., van der Wee, N., Durieux, J., Manai, M., & Hommel, B. (2015). Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users. Psychopharmacology, 232, 1123-1134.

van Steenbergen, H. (2015). Affective modulation of cognitive control: A biobehavioral perspective. In G. Gendolla, M. Tops, S. Koole (Eds.) Handbook of Biobehavioral Approaches to Self-Regulation (pp. 89-107). Springer.


Spapé M.M.*, Verdonschot, R.G., Van Dantzig, S., & van Steenbergen, H.* (2014) The E-Primer: An introduction to creating psychological experiments in E-Prime. Leiden: Leiden University Press.

Hengstler, M., Holland, R.W., van Steenbergen, H., van Knippenberg, A. (2014). The influence of approach-avoidance motivational orientation on conflict adaptation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 548-560

van Steenbergen, H., Langeslag, S.J.E., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2014). Reduced cognitive control in passionate lovers. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 444-450.

Brown, S.B.R.E, van Steenbergen, H., Kedar, T., Nieuwenhuis, S. (2014). Effects of arousal on cognitive control: Empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:23.


van Steenbergen, H. & Band, G.P.H. (2013). Pupil dilation in the Simon task as a marker of conflict processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7:215.

Bruyneel, L., van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., Hommel, B., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E.H.W. (2013). Happy but still focused: Failures to find evidence for a mood-induced widening of visual attention. Psychological Research, 77, 320-332.

Kowal, M.A., Hazekamp, A., Colzato, L.C., van Steenbergen, H., & Hommel, B. (2013). Modulation of cognitive and emotional processing by cannabidiol: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience7:147.

de Laat, S., Hengstler, M., Holland. R.W., van Steenbergen, H., & van Knippenberg, A. (2013). Dat kan niet goet zijn: Domein-generiek conflict verhoogt cognitieve controle. In R. Dotsch, E.K. Papies, T.M. Pronk, B.T. Rutjens, J. van der Toorn, & E.G. Ufkes (Eds.), Jaarboek sociale psychologie 2013 (pp. 121-124). Groningen: Aspo Pers.


van Steenbergen, H. (2012) The Drive to Control: How Affect and Motivation Regulate Cognitive Control [Dissertation]. Enschede: Ipskamp Drukkers B.V.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2012). Reward valence modulates conflict-driven attentional adaptation: Electrophysiological evidence. Biological Psychology, 90, 234-241

van Steenbergen, H., Booij, L., Band, G.P.H., Hommel, B., & van der Does, A.J.W. (2012). Affective regulation of cognitive-control adjustments in remitted depressive patients after acute tryptophan depletion. Cognitive, Affective, &Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 280-286

Brown, S.B.R.E., van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H, de Rover, M., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2012). Functional significance of the emotion-related late positive potential, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:33.

Jepma, M., Verdonschot, R.G., van Steenbergen, H., Rombouts, S.A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2012). Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 6:5.

Hengstler, M., Holland, R.W., van Steenbergen, H., & van Knippenberg, A. (2012). Conflict Adaptatie Gereguleerd: De Invloed van Lichaamsfeedback op Conflict Adaptatie. In N. van de Ven, M. Baas, L. van Dillen, D. Lakens, A.M. Lokhorst, & M. Strick (Eds.) Jaarboek Sociale Psychologie 2011, 75-86. Groningen: ASPO Pers.


van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2011). Threat but not arousal narrows attention: evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control. Frontiers in Psychology, 2: 281.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2010). In the mood for adaptation: How affect regulates conflict-driven control. Psychological Science, 21, 1629-1634.

van Steenbergen, H., Band, G.P.H., & Hommel, B. (2009). Reward counteracts conflict adaptation: Evidence for a role of affect in executive control. Psychological Science, 20, 1473-1477.

Band, G.P.H., van Steenbergen, H., Ridderinkhof, K.R., Falkenstein, M., & Hommel, B. (2009). Action-effect negativity: Irrelevant action effects are monitored like relevant feedbackBiological Psychology, 82, 211-218.